Download PDFOpen PDF in browser

Human-Technology Coexistence in the Industry 4.0: The Role of Advanced Simulation Technology in Training

4 pagesPublished: January 5, 2024


Digitalisation and autonomy, as the main drivers of the fourth industrial revolution, are transforming all industries, including the maritime industry. As the Industry 4.0 technologies such as Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), Internet of Things (IoT), Cloud Computing, and Simulation getting mature they are transforming industries in an unprecedented way (Gilchrist, 2016; Horvat, Kroll, & Jäger, 2019; Shahbakhsh, Emad, & Cahoon, 2021; Ustundag & Cevikcan, 2017). These technologies in the context of the maritime industry have the potential to promote sustainability, enhance innovation, support education, increase efficiency, and reduce the cost of maritime operations (Emad, Khabir, & Shahbakhsh, 2020; Emad & Shahbakhsh, 2022). However, the major challenge the industry is facing is the human element (Emad, 2020a). The pace of technology progression is not the same as human adaptation in embracing these technologies where they are expected to become professional and knowledgeable users (Emad, 2020b; Emad & Ghosh, 2023). In shipping, the emergence of the autonomous ship as the outcome of Industry 4.0 implementation is influencing many aspects of the maritime industry, including its workforce (Emad, Enshaei, & Ghosh, 2021). While most maritime stakeholders are considering utilising Industry 4.0 technologies, the human element and its adaptation falls behind this revolutionary trend (Emad, 2021). As one of the most critical stakeholders, maritime operators must be upskilled and reskilled through advanced training programs to allow them to operate the advanced technologies. This is necessary for them to be able to perform the new roles and responsibilities resulting from the newly developed workplaces onboard ship and onshore. To have a better understanding of the current trend in the maritime industry and what needs to be done we performed an in-depth systematic literature review. Our research shows that to train the future workforce, among all technologies, simulation plays a distinct role. The simulation technology as a powerful tool is not new to the industry. The earlier version of the technology was introduced by Industry 2.0 and advanced in Industry 3.0 (Gunal, 2019). However, Industry 4.0 is revolutionizing this technology and elevating its capability under Virtualisation and digital twin technology (Liljaniemi & Paavilainen, 2020; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Díaz-Gutiérrez, Leo, & Núñez- Rivas, 2019; Sánchez-Sotano, Cerezo-Narváez, Abad-Fraga, Pastor-Fernández, & Salguero-Gómez, 2020). Industry 4.0 allow the simulation to utilise other advanced technologies, such as cloud computing, mixed reality (MR), and augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR) to increase the realism of training programs and the ability to resemble real-life scenarios (Ferreira, Armellini, & De Santa-Eulalia, 2020; Rodič, 2017; Zarzuelo, Soeane, & Bermúdez, 2020). At the same time, the evolving technology-rich maritime workplaces that utilise the same technologies are providing a virtual workspace that can be perfectly simulated (Kim, Sharma, Bustgaard et al., 2021; Kumar, Arekar, & Jain; Liu, Lan, Cui et al., 2020; Sellberg, 2017). This opportunity makes the simulation/simulator the most authentic tool to train the future workforce.

Keyphrases: Autonomous Shipping, Human-Technology coexistence, Industry 4.0, Maritime workforce, simulation, training

In: G. Reza Emad and Aditi Kataria (editors). Proceedings of the International Conference on Maritime Autonomy and Remote Navigation 2023, vol 2, pages 16--19

BibTeX entry
  author    = {Gholam Reza Emad and Gordon Meadow and Mehrangiz Shahbakhsh},
  title     = {Human-Technology Coexistence in the Industry 4.0: The Role of Advanced Simulation Technology in Training},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Maritime Autonomy and Remote Navigation 2023},
  editor    = {G. Reza Emad and Aditi Kataria},
  series    = {EPiC Series in Technology},
  volume    = {2},
  pages     = {16--19},
  year      = {2024},
  publisher = {EasyChair},
  bibsource = {EasyChair,},
  issn      = {2516-2322},
  url       = {},
  doi       = {10.29007/2ktn}}
Download PDFOpen PDF in browser