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Combining sensor and robotic technologies to achieve a well balanced total knee arthroplasty while avoiding any soft tissue releases

4 pagesPublished: September 26, 2020

Abstract

Achieving a balanced total knee throughout the entire range of motion leads to improved patient reported outcomes and satisfaction. Sensor-assisted technology allows the surgeon to quantitatively assess and address imbalance through either soft tissue releases or bone recuts. However, balancing through soft tissue releases leads to unpredictable gap increments and frequent early over-releases.

METHODS: During a consecutive and prospective series of 29 robotic total knee surgeries, intra-operative load sensors were used following the initial bone resections to quantitatively assess the knee’s state of balance through the range of motion with trial components in place. Load measurements were taken at 10 and 90 degrees of knee flexion. Based on previous literature, a balanced knee is defined as having a mediolateral load difference below 15 pounds (lbf) through the range of motion, with an absolute load magnitude per compartment above 5lbf and not exceeding 45lbf. The initial load numbers were recorded as well as the number and type of subsequent corrections needed to achieve quantitative balance.

RESULTS Of the 29 robotics cases, only 12 (41%) were well-balanced after the initial bone cuts (mechanical alignment by measured resection). Another two cases were too loose and required an increase in the polyethylene thickness size of two millimeters to achieve a well-balanced knee without further bone resection. In 14 cases, a bone recut was required to balance the knee. More specifically, four cases required a recut of the femur, ten cases required a recut of the tibia. Eventually, one case was left unbalanced in flexion with a mediolateral load differential of 20 lbf. It should be noted explicitly that no soft tissue releases were done for any of the 29 cases. At the end, all 29 knees were considered well balanced in extension and all but six (79%) at 90° of flexion. For these six cases with balance issue at 90° of flexion, absolute load magnitude in both compartments was below 45 lbf and above 5lbf, though the mediolateral load differential was between 15lbf and 30lbf.

DISCUSSION Based on a preliminary series, this work demonstrates the opportunity of combining multiple technologies to achieve a quantitatively balanced knee through the range of motion without any soft tissue release.

Keyphrases: load sensors, Robotic-assisted surgery, Total knee arthroplasty

In: Ferdinando Rodriguez Y Baena and Fabio Tatti (editors). CAOS 2020. The 20th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Computer Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery, vol 4, pages 8--11

Links:
BibTeX entry
@inproceedings{CAOS2020:Combining_sensor_and_robotic,
  author    = {Julien Bardou-Jacquet},
  title     = {Combining sensor and robotic technologies to achieve a well balanced total knee arthroplasty while avoiding any soft tissue releases},
  booktitle = {CAOS 2020. The 20th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Computer Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery},
  editor    = {Ferdinando Rodriguez Y Baena and Fabio Tatti},
  series    = {EPiC Series in Health Sciences},
  volume    = {4},
  pages     = {8--11},
  year      = {2020},
  publisher = {EasyChair},
  bibsource = {EasyChair, https://easychair.org},
  issn      = {2398-5305},
  url       = {https://easychair.org/publications/paper/cPSq},
  doi       = {10.29007/vwhp}}
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