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09:00-10:15 Session 124: Contributed Talks
Location: EI, EI 7
Lower and Upper Approximations for Depleting Modules of Description Logic Ontologies
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. It is known that no algorithm can extract the minimal depleting Σ-module from ontologies in expressive description logics (DLs). Thus research has focused on algorithms that approximate minimal depleting modules ‘from above’ by computing a depleting module that is not necessarily minimal. The first contribution of this paper is an implementation (AMEX) of such a depleting module extraction algorithm for expressive acyclic DL ontologies that uses a QBF solver for checking conservative extensions relativised to singleton interpretations. To evaluate AMEX and other module extraction algorithms we propose an algorithm approximating minimal depleting modules ‘from below’ (which also uses a QBF solver). We present experiments based on NCI (the National Cancer Institute Thesaurus) that indicate that our lower approximation often coincides with (or is very close to) the upper approximation computed by AMEX, thus proving for the first time that an approximation algorithm for minimal depleting modules can be almost optimal on a large ontology.

Axiom Dependency Hypergraphs for Fast Modularisation and Atomic Decomposition
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. In this paper we use directed hypergraphs to represent the locality-based dependencies between the axioms of an OWL ontology. We define a notion of an axiom dependency hypergraph, where axioms are represented as nodes and dependencies between axioms as hyperedges connecting possibly several nodes with one node. We show that a locality-based module of an ontology corresponds to a connected component in the hypergraph, and an atom of an ontology to a strongly connected component. Collapsing the strongly connected components into single nodes yields a condensed axiom dependency hypergraph, which contains the atomic decomposition of the ontology. To condense the axiom dependency hypergraph we exploit linear time graph algorithms on its graph fragment. This optimization can significantly reduce the time needed to compute the atomic decomposition of an ontology. We provide an experimental evaluation for computing the atomic decomposition of large biomedical ontologies, and for computing syntactic locality-based modules using the condensed axiom dependency hypergraph.

DeaLing with Ontologies using CODs

ABSTRACT. A major challenge in knowledge representation is to manage the access to knowledge: users should not be presented with knowledge that is irrelevant to their topic of interest, or have no right to access.

Two general strategies exist for providing access restrictions: (1) the ontology engineers describe the conditions that allow access to specific fragments of the ontology, or (2) fragments are automatically identified through their logical properties. The former is prone to miss logical connections between axioms, while the latter can fail to capture relevant knowledge that has no logical connection with the topic of interest.

We define the Context-Oriented Decomposition (COD) of an ontology as a technique that combines the benefits of both approaches: it allows authors to identify relevant fragments, while guaranteeing the strong semantic properties of the logic-based Atomic Decomposition.

10:15-10:45Coffee Break
10:45-13:00 Session 127G: Contributed Talks
Location: EI, EI 7
Controlled Query Evaluation over Lightweight Ontologies
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. We study confidentiality enforcement in ontologies under the Controlled Query Evaluation (CQE) framework. In a CQE system, a policy specifies the sensitive information, and a censor ensures that answers to user queries that could violate the policy are not returned. Our goal is the design of optimal CQE algorithms, which ensure confidentiality while maximising access to information. We study two natural classes of censors that can be realised using existing infrastructure for query answering and propose optimal CQE algorithms for the standardised profiles of the ontology language OWL 2.

Query Rewriting under EL TBoxes: Efficient Algorithms
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. We propose a new type of algorithm for computing first-order (FO) rewritings of concept queries under EL-TBoxes that is tailored towards efficient implementation. The algorithm outputs a non-recursive datalog rewriting if the input is FO-rewritable and otherwise reports non-FO-rewritability. We carry out experiments with ontologies from practical applications which show that our algorithm performs very well in practice, and that EL-TBoxes originating from real-world applications admit FO-rewritings (of reasonable size) in almost all cases, even when in theory such rewritings are not guaranteed to exist.

Parallel OWL 2 RL Materialisation in Centralised, Main-Memory RDF Systems
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. We present a novel approach to parallel materialisation (i.e., fixpoint computation) of OWL RL Knowledge Bases in centralised, main-memory, multi-core RDF systems. Our approach comprises a parallel reasoning algorithm that evenly distributes the workload to cores, and an RDF indexing data structure that supports efficient, `mostly' lock-free parallel updates. Our empirical evaluation shows that our approach parallelises computation very well so, with 16 physical cores, materialisation can be up to 13.9 times faster than with just one core.

SPARQL Update for Materialized Triple Stores under DL-Lite_RDFS Entailment
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Updates in RDF stores have recently been standardised in the SPARQL 1.1 Update specification. However, computing answers entailed by ontologies in triple stores is usually treated orthogonal to updates. Even W3C's SPARQL 1.1 Update language and SPARQL 1.1 Entailment Regimes specifications explicitly exclude a standard behaviour how entailment regimes other than simple entailment in the context of updates. In this paper, we take a first step to close this gap. We define a fragment of SPARQL basic graph patterns corresponding to (the RDFS fragment of) DL-Lite and the corresponding SPARQL update language, dealing with updates both of ABox and of TBox statements. We discuss possible semantics along with potential strategies for implementing them. Particularly, we treat materialised RDF stores, which store all entailed triples explicitly and how materialisation can be preserved upon ABox and TBox updates.

XPath for DL-Lite Ontologies
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Applications of description logics (DLs) such as OWL 2 and ontology-based data access (OBDA) require understanding of how to pose database queries over DL knowledge bases. While there have been many studies regarding traditional relational query formalisms such as conjunctive queries and their extensions, little attention has been paid to graph database queries, despite the fact that graph databases share the structure of interpretations with DLs; that is they describe essentially the same objects. In particular, not much is known about the interplay between DLs and XPath. The last is a powerful formalism for querying semistructured data: it is in the core of most practical query languages for XML trees, and it is also gaining popularity in theory and practice of graph databases.

In this paper we make a step towards coupling knowledge bases and graph databases by studying how to answer powerful XPath-style queries over DL-Lite. We start with adapting the definition of XPath to the DL context, and then proceed to study the complexity of evaluating XPath queries over knowledge bases. Results show that, while query answering is undecidable for the full XPath, by carefully tuning the amount of negation allowed in the queries we can arrive to XPath fragments that have a potential to be used in practical applications.

13:00-14:30Lunch Break
16:00-16:30Coffee Break