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10:15-10:45Coffee Break
10:45-13:00 Session 149D: Test of Time Award: 20 Years / Technical Session- Constraint Programming
Location: FH, Hörsaal 8
Test of Time Awards: 20 Years - CLP(Intervals) Revisited
SUNNY: a Lazy Portfolio Approach for Constraint Solving
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Within the context of constraint solving, a portfolio approach allows one to exploit the synergy between different solvers in order to create a globally better solver. In this paper we present SUNNY: a simple and flexible algorithm that takes advantage of a portfolio of constraint solvers in order to compute - without learning an explicit model - a schedule of them for solving a given Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP). Motivated by the performances reached by SUNNY w.r.t. different simulations of other state of the art approaches, we developed sunny-csp, an effective portfolio solver that exploits the underlying SUNNY algorithm in order to solve a given CSP. Empirical tests conducted on exhaustive benchmarks of MiniZinc models show that the actual performances of sunny-csp conform to the predictions. This is encouraging both for improving the power of CSP portfolio solvers and for trying to export them to fields such as Answer Set Programming and Constraint Logic Programming.

Using Tabled Logic Programming to Solve the Petrobras Planning Problem
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Tabling has been used for some time to improve efficiency of Prolog programs by memorizing answered queries. The same idea can be naturally used to memorize visited states during search for example in planning. In this paper we present a planner developed in the Picat language to solve the Petrobras planning problem. Picat is a novel Prolog-like language that provides pattern matching, deterministic and non-deterministic rules, and tabling as its core modeling and solving features that are very appropriate for solving planning problem. We demonstrate these capabilities using the Petrobras domain, where the goal is to plan transport of cargo items from ports to platforms using ships with limited capacity. This domain has been introduced in the Fourth International Competition on Knowledge Engineering for Planning and Scheduling (ICKEPS 2012) as a challenge real-life motivated problem. Monte Carlo Tree Search was so far the best technique to tackle this problem and we will show that by using tabling we can achieve comparable efficiency.

A Proof Theoretic Study of Soft Concurrent Constraint Programming
SPEAKER: Carlos Olarte

ABSTRACT. Concurrent Constraint Programming (CCP) is a simple and powerful model for concurrency where agents interact by telling and asking constraints. Since their inception, CCP-languages have been designed for having a strong connection to logic. In fact, the underlying constraint system can be built from a suitable fragment of intuitionistic (linear) logic --ILL-- and processes can be interpreted as formulas in ILL. Constraints as ILL formulas fail to represent accurately situations where "preferences'' (called soft constraints) such as probabilities, uncertainty or fuzziness are present. In order to circumvent this problem, c-semirings have been proposed as algebraic structures for defining constraint systems where agents are allowed to tell and ask soft constraints. Nevertheless, in this case, the tight connection to logic and proof theory is lost. In this work, we give a proof theoretical interpretation to soft constraints: they can be defined as formulas in a suitable fragment of ILL with subexponentials (SELL) where subexponentials, ordered in a c-semiring structure, are interpreted as preferences. We hence achieve two goals: (1) obtain a CCP language where agents can tell and ask soft constraints and (2) prove that the language in (1) has a strong connection with logic. Hence we keep a declarative reading of processes as formulas while providing a logical framework for soft-CCP based systems. An interesting side effect of (1) is that one is also able to handle probabilities (and other modalities) in SELL, by restricting the use of the promotion rule for non-idempotent c-semirings. This finer way of controlling subexponentials allows for considering more interesting spaces and restrictions, and it opens the possibility of specifying more challenging computational systems.

13:00-14:30Lunch Break
14:30-16:00 Session 151D: Invited Talk / Technical Session - Program Analysis
Location: FH, Hörsaal 8
(Quantified) Horn Constraint Solving for Program Verification and Synthesis
Resource Usage Analysis of Logic Programs via Abstract Interpretation Using Sized Types
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. We present a novel general resource analysis for logic programs based on sized types. Sized types are representations that incorporate structural (shape) information and allow expressing both lower and upper bounds on the size of a set of terms and their subterms at any position and depth. They also allow relating the sizes of terms and subterms occurring at different argument positions in logic predicates. Using these sized types, the resource analysis can infer both lower and upper bounds on the resources used by all the procedures in a program as functions on input term (and subterm) sizes, overcoming limitations of existing resource analyses and enhancing their precision. Our new resource analysis has been developed within the abstract interpretation framework, as an extension of the sized types abstract domain, and has been integrated into the Ciao preprocessor, CiaoPP. The abstract domain operations are integrated with the setting up and solving of recurrence equations for inferring both size and resource usage functions. We show that the analysis is an improvement over the previous resource analysis present in CiaoPP and compares well in power to state of the art systems.

16:00-16:30Coffee Break
16:30-18:00 Session 153A: Technical Session - Answer Set Programming
Location: FH, Hörsaal 8
Dynamic Consistency Checking in Goal-Directed Answer Set Programming
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. One obstacle to goal-directed execution of answer set programs is that a valid answer set must satisfy the constraints imposed by every rule containing an odd loop over negation, even when those rules have no relation to a particular query. In this paper, we introduce a technique for dynamic consistency checking, under which only those constraints which are relevant to the partial answer set are tested. However, the algorithm guarantees that, if a program has at least one consistent answer set, any partial answer set returned will be a subset of some consistent answer set.

Anytime Computation of Cautious Consequences in Answer Set Programming
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Query answering in Answer Set Programming is usually solved by computing (a subset of) the cautious consequences of a logic program. This task is computationally very hard, and there are programs for which computing cautious consequences is not viable in reasonable time. However, current ASP solvers produce the (whole) set of cautious consequences only at the end of their computation. This paper reports on strategies for computing cautious consequences, also introducing anytime algorithms able to produce sound answers during the computation.

Efficient Computation of the Well-Founded Semantics over Big Data

ABSTRACT. Data originating from the Web, sensor readings and social media result in increasingly huge datasets. The so called Big Data comes with new scientific and technological challenges while creating new opportunities, hence the increasing interest in academia and industry. Traditionally, logic programming has focused on complex knowledge structures/programs, so the question arises whether and how it can work in the face of Big Data. In this paper, we examine how the well-founded semantics can process huge amounts of data through mass parallelization. More specifically, we propose and evaluate a parallel approach using the MapReduce framework. Our experimental results indicate that our approach is scalable and that well-founded semantics can be applied to billions of facts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that addresses large scale nonmonotonic reasoning without the restriction of stratification for predicates of arbitrary arity.

08:45-10:15 Session 156: VSL Keynote Talk
Location: EI, EI 7 + EI 9, EI 10 + FH, Hörsaal 1
VSL Keynote Talk: Verification of Computer Systems with Model Checking
SPEAKER: Edmund Clarke

ABSTRACT. Model Checking is an automatic verification technique for large state transition systems. The technique has been used successfully to debug complex computer hardware and communication protocols. Now, it is beginning to be used for complex hybrid (continuous/discrete) systems as well. The major disadvantage of the technique is a phenomenon called the State Explosion Problem. This problem is impossible to avoid in worst case. However, by using sophisticated data structures and clever search algorithms, it is now possible to verify hybrid systems with astronomical numbers of states.