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08:45-10:15 Session 106B: Contributed Talks: Causality and Inference
Location: EI, EI 9
Tableau vs. Sequent Calculi for Minimal Entailment
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. In this paper we compare two proof systems for minimal entailment: a tableau system OTAB and a sequent calculus MLK, both developed by Olivetti (1992). Our main result shows that OTAB-proofs can be efficiently translated into MLK-proofs, i.e., MLK p-simulates OTAB. The simulation is technically very involved and answers an open question posed by Olivetti (1992) on the relation between the two calculi. We also show that the two systems are exponentially separated, i.e., there are formulas which have polynomial-size MLK-proofs, but require exponential-size OTAB-proofs.

Revisiting Chase Termination for Existential Rules and their Extension to Nonmonotonic Negation
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Existential rules have been proposed for representing ontological knowledge, specifically in the context of Ontology- Based Data Access. Entailment with existential rules is undecidable. We focus in this paper on conditions that ensure the termination of a breadth-first forward chaining algorithm known as the chase. Several variants of the chase have been proposed. In the first part of this paper, we propose a new tool that allows to extend existing acyclicity conditions ensuring chase termination, while keeping good complexity properties. In the second part, we study the extension to existential rules with nonmonotonic negation under stable model semantics, discuss the relevancy of the chase variants for these rules and further extend acyclicity results obtained in the positive case.

Causality in Databases: The Diagnosis and Repair Connections
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. In this work we establish and investigate the connections between causality for query answers in databases, database repairs wrt. denial constraints, and model-based diagnosis. The first two are relatively new problems in databases, and the third one is an established subject in knowledge representation. We show how to obtain database repairs from causes and the other way around. The vast body of research on database repairs can be applied to the newer problem of determining actual causes for query answers. By formulating a causality problem as a diagnosis problem, we manage to characterize causes in terms of the system’s diagnoses.

10:15-10:45Coffee Break
10:45-12:15 Session 109G: Contributed Talks: Declarative Programming 3
Location: EI, EI 9
Interactive Debugging of ASP Programs

ABSTRACT. Broad application of answer set programming (ASP) for declarative problem solving requires the development of tools supporting the coding process. Program debugging is one of the crucial activities within this process. Recently suggested ASP debugging approaches allow efficient computation of possible explanations of a fault. However, even for a small program a debugger might return a large number of possible explanations and selection of the correct one must be done manually. In this paper we present an interactive query-based ASP debugging method which extends previous approaches and finds a preferred explanation by means of observations. The system queries a programmer whether a set of ground atoms must be true in all (cautiously) or some (bravely) answer sets of the program. Since some queries can be more informative than the others, we discuss query selection strategies which, given user's preferences for an explanation, can find the best query. That is, the query an answer of which reduces the overall number of queries required for the identification of a preferred explanation.

Semantics and Compilation of Answer Set Programming with Generalized Atoms
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Answer Set Programming (ASP) is logic programming under the stable model or answer set semantics. During the last decade, this paradigm has seen several extensions by generalizing the notion of atom used in these programs. Among these, there are aggregate atoms, HEX atoms, generalized quantifiers, and abstract constraints. In this paper we refer to these constructs collectively as generalized atoms. The idea common to all of these constructs is that their satisfaction depends on the truth values of a set of (non-generalized) atoms, rather than the truth value of a single (non-generalized) atom. Motivated by several examples, we argue that for some of the more intricate generalized atoms, the previously suggested semantics provide unintuitive results and provide an alternative semantics, which we call supportedly stable or SFLP answer sets. We show that it is equivalent to the major previously proposed semantics for programs with convex generalized atoms, and that it in general admits more intended models than other semantics in the presence of non-convex generalized atoms. We show that the complexity of supportedly stable models is on the second level of the polynomial hierarchy, similar to previous proposals and to stable models of disjunctive logic programs. Given these complexity results, we provide a compilation method that compactly transforms programs with generalized atoms in disjunctive normal form to programs without generalized atoms. Variants are given for the new supportedly stable and the existing FLP semantics, for which a similar compilation technique has not been known so far.

A Family of Descriptive Approaches To Preferred Answer Sets

ABSTRACT. In logic programming under the answer set semantics, preferences on rules are used to choose which of the conflicting rules are applied. Many interesting semantics have been proposed. Brewka and Eiter's Principle I expresses the basic intuition behind the preferences. All the approaches that satisfy Principle I introduce a rather imperative feature into otherwise declarative language. They understand preferences as the order, in which the rules of a program have to be applied. In this paper we present two purely declarative approaches for preference handling that satisfy Principle I, and work for indirectly conflicting rules. The first approach is based on the idea that a rule cannot be defeated by a less preferred conflicting rule. This approach is able to ignore preferences between non-conflicting, and ,e.g., is equivalent with the answer set semantics for the subclass of stratified programs. It is suitable for the scenarios, when developers do not have full control over preferences. The second approach relaxes the requirement for ignoring conflicting rules, which ensures that it stays in the NP complexity class. It is based on the idea that a rule cannot be defeated by a rule that is less preferred or depends on a less preferred rule. The second approach can be also characterized by a transformation to logic programs without preferences. It turns out that the approaches form a hierarchy independent of the hierarchy of the approaches by Delgrande et. al., Wang et. al., and Brewka and Eiter. The approaches of the paper are equivalent with our earlier approach for direct conflicts, when the preferences are only between directly conflicting rules. Finally, we show an application for which the existing approaches are not usable, and the approaches of this paper produce expected results.

12:15-13:00 Session 111: Contributed Talks: Systems 2
Location: EI, EI 9
Integrating Declarative Programming and Probabilistic Graphical Models for Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in Robotics
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. This paper describes an architecture that combines the complementary strengths of declarative programming and probabilistic graphical models to enable robots to represent, reason with, and learn from, qualitative and quantitative descriptions of uncertainty and knowledge. An action language is used for the low-level (LL) and high-level (HL) system descriptions in the architecture, and the definition of recorded histories in the HL is expanded to allow prioritized defaults. For any given goal, tentative plans created in the HL using default knowledge and commonsense reasoning are implemented in the LL using probabilistic algorithms, with the corresponding observations used to update the HL history. Tight coupling between the two levels enables automatic selection of relevant variables and generation of suitable action policies in the LL for each HL action, and supports reasoning with violation of defaults, noisy observations and unreliable actions in large and complex domains. The architecture is evaluated in simulation and on physical robots transporting objects in indoor domains; the benefit on robots is a reduction in task execution time of 39% compared with a purely probabilistic, but still hierarchical, approach.

An ASP-Based Architecture for Autonomous UAVs in Dynamic Environments: Progress Report
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Traditional AI reasoning techniques have been used successfully in many domains, including logistics, scheduling and game playing. This paper is part of a project aimed at investigating how such techniques can be extended to coordinate teams of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in dynamic environments. Specifically challenging are real-world environments where UAVs and other network-enabled devices must communicate to coordinate---and communication actions are neither reliable nor free. Such network-centric environments are common in military, public safety and commercial applications, yet most research (even multi-agent planning) usually takes communications among distributed agents as a given. We address this challenge by developing an agent architecture and reasoning algorithms based on Answer Set Programming (ASP). ASP has been chosen for this task because it enables high flexibility of representation, both of knowledge and of reasoning tasks. Although ASP\ has been used successfully in a number of applications, and ASP-based architectures have been studied for about a decade, to the best of our knowledge this is the first practical application of a complete ASP-based agent architecture. It is also the first practical application of ASP involving a combination of centralized reasoning, decentralized reasoning, execution monitoring, and reasoning about network communications. This work has been empirically validated using a distributed network-centric software evaluation testbed and the results provide guidance to designers in how to understand and control intelligent systems that operate in these environments.

13:00-14:30Lunch Break
14:30-15:30 Session 113G: Invited Talk
Location: EI, EI 9
Revisiting Postulates for Inconsistency Measures

ABSTRACT. We discuss postulates for inconsistency measures as proposed in the literature. We examine them both individually and as a collection.
Although we criticize two of the main postulates, we mostly focus on the meaning of the postulates as a whole. Accordingly, we discuss a number of new postulates as substitutes and/or as alternative families.

15:30-16:00 Session 114: Contributed Talk: Nonmonotonic Logics
Location: EI, EI 9
Implementing Default and Autoepistemic Logics via the Logic of GK
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. The logic of knowledge and justified assumptions, also known as logic of grounded knowledge (GK), was proposed by Lin and Shoham as a general logic for nonmonotonic reasoning. To date, it has been used to embed in it default logic (propositional case), autoepistemic logic, Turner's logic of universal causation, and general logic programming under stable model semantics. Besides showing the generality of GK as a logic for nonmonotonic reasoning, these embeddings shed light on the relationships among these other logics. In this paper, for the first time, we show how the logic of GK can be embedded into disjunctive logic programming in a polynomial but non-modular translation with new variables. The result can then be used to compute the extension/expansion semantics of default logic, autoepistemic logic and Turner's logic of universal causation by disjunctive ASP solvers such as claspD(-2), DLV, GNT and cmodels.

16:00-16:30Coffee Break
16:30-18:30 Session 116H: Contributed Talks: Argumentation 2
Location: EI, EI 9
Compact Argumentation Frameworks

ABSTRACT. Abstract argumentation frameworks (AFs) are one of the most studied formalisms in AI. In this work, we introduce a certain subclass of AFs which we call compact. Given an extension-based semantics, the corresponding compact AFs are characterized by the feature that each argument of the AF occurs in at least one extension. This not only guarantees a certain notion of fairness; compact AFs are thus also minimal in the sense that no argument can be removed without changing the outcome. We address the following questions in the paper: (1) How are the classes of compact AFs related for different semantics? (2) Under which circumstances can AFs be transformed into equivalent compact ones? (3) Finally, we show that compact AFs are indeed a non-trivial subclass, since the verification problem remains coNP-hard for certain semantics.

Extension--based Semantics of Abstract Dialectical Frameworks

ABSTRACT. One of the most common tools in abstract argumentation are the argumentation frameworks and their associated semantics. While the framework is used to represent a given problem, the semantics define methods of solving it, i.e. they describe requirements for accepting and rejecting arguments. The basic available structure is the Dung framework, AF for short. It is accompanied by a variety of semantics including grounded, complete, preferred and stable. Although powerful, AFs have their shortcomings, which led to development of numerous enrichments. Among the most general ones are the abstract dialectical frameworks, also known as the ADFs. They make use of the so--called acceptance conditions to represent arbitrary relations. This level of abstraction brings not only new challenges, but also requires addressing problems inherited from other frameworks. One of the most controversial issues, recognized not only in argumentation, concerns the support cycles. In this paper we introduce a new method to ensure acyclicity of the chosen arguments and present a family of extension--based semantics built on it. We also continue our research on the semantics that permit cycles and fill in the gaps from the previous works. Moreover, we provide ADF versions of the properties known from the Dung setting. Finally, we also introduce a classification of the developed sub--semantics and relate them to the existing labeling--based approaches.

Credulous and Skeptical Argument Games for Complete Semantics in Conflict Resolution based Argumentation
SPEAKER: Jozef Frtús

ABSTRACT. Argumentation is one of the most popular approaches of defining a non-monotonic formalism and several argumentation based semantics were proposed for defeasible logic programs. Recently, a new approach based on notions of conflict resolutions was proposed, however with declarative semantics only. This paper gives a more procedural counterpart by developing skeptical and credulous argument games for complete semantics and soundness and completeness theorems for both games are provided. After that, distribution of defeasible logic program into several contexts is investigated and both argument games are adapted for multi-context system.

On the Relative Expressiveness of Argumentation Frameworks, Normal Logic Programs and Abstract Dialectical Frameworks
SPEAKER: Hannes Strass

ABSTRACT. We analyse the expressiveness of the two-valued semantics of abstract argumentation frameworks, normal logic programs and abstract dialectical frameworks. By expressiveness we mean the ability to encode a desired set of two-valued interpretations over a given propositional signature using only atoms from that signature. While the computational complexity of the two-valued model existence problem for all these languages is (almost) the same, we show that the languages form a neat hierarchy with respect to their expressiveness.

19:00-21:30 Session 122: VSL Reception 2
Location: University of Vienna, Arkadenhof
22:00-23:59 Session 123: VSL Student Reception 2
Location: Säulenhalle (Volksgarten)